Fasteners are hardware components used to secure two materials together. Nails, studs, screws, and bolts are all commonly used across various markets. These components are ideal in applications where a non-permanent, but secure joint is required. As most fasteners are utilized in applications with high stress loads, they are at risk for degradation; accordingly, this hardware is generally designed to be easily installed and replaced. Fasteners are categorized based on specific features: proof load, threaded or unthreaded, tensile strength, head type, length, materials, and standards specified by the applicable industry or governing bodies all determine fastener type and application.
Materials are the main factor in determining the proper fastener to utilize. Stainless steel, carbon steel, alloy steel, Inconel stainless steel, titanium, plastic polymers, and aluminum are all commonly used materials in fastener construction. Platings or coatings can be applied to specified fasteners in order to reduce corrosion and increase wear-time. Alloys are the predominant material used for plating; alloys for fastener plating are often made of cadmium, nickel, silver, zinc, phosphate, and/or chromium.
Standards and Traceability
Fasteners are used across many industries from industrial manufacturing to commercial aircraft; as such, there are many types of fasteners that vary in quality and appropriate application. Fasteners used in aerospace, maritime, and automotive industries generally require higher standards and specifications due to the conditions they are exposed to.
Among a multitude of other standards, the American National (Unified) Thread, Metric Thread, Coarse Series (UNC), Fine Series (UNF), and Extra Fine Series (UNEF) are among the most prevalently used standards. Fasteners might also be subject to military standards (MS) set by the US Military identify requirements for traceability and compliance which set criteria for military and defense applications. In addition, fasteners may also be set to standards specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, who maintains standards that clarify types, dimensions, and materials.
At ASAP Aviation Hub , owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor LLC, we provide high quality fasteners from top manufacturers in the industry. Our product portfolio includes components from PCC Fasteners, Monogram, Fairchild, Eaton, 3V Fasteners LISI Aerospace, Bell Helicopter, and more.
Types Of Fasteners
Fastener types are sorted into the following categories: drive types, washer types, nut types, and anchoring products. Within these subsets, the fasteners are defined by the formerly mentioned parameters. Common fastener type families include: cable ties, bolts, battens, clasps, clips, clutches, buckles, buttons, cams, retaining rings, rivets, screws, staples, studs, clamps, pins, flanges, frogs, grommets, hook-and-eye closures, latches, nails, pegs, nuts, spacers, threaded fasteners, ties, washers, etc.
insert jam lock nut, wing nut, cap nut, flange nut, square nut, prevailing torque lock nut, k-lock or Keps nut, coupling nut, slotted nut, castle nut, pin lock nut, washer -faced nut, chamfered nut, jam nut, hex nut, heavy hex nut, nylon insert lock nut, nylon
conical anchors, self-drilling drywall anchors, wood screw anchors, nail drive anchors, and anchor bolts, hollow wall anchors, concrete screws, spring toggle wings, stud anchors, sleeve anchors, lag shields, machine screw anchors, drop-in anchors, double expansion sleeves, plastic toggle,
slotted, combination, socket, square, star, one way, Phillips and Frearson, machine screws
fender, finishing, split lock, dock, external tooth lock, internal tooth lock, square, flat
Aerospace fasteners are highly regulated and must be manufactured according to standards and specifications set by multiple organizations. Aerospace fasteners operate in high stress environments in which they are exposed to extreme temperatures, varying stress loads, pressure variations, and chemical exposure that can accelerate degradation/corrosion. Standards include those set by National Aerospace Standards(NAS), Boeing Aircraft Standards (BAC), Military Standards(MS), and Aerospace Standards (AS).
Aluminum has historically been the most prevalently used material in aerospace hardware. When utilized for spacecraft, the material requires extra treatment to edify its corrosion resistance properties. In this application, aluminum must be cold heat formed. The material is most useful when aluminum alloys are used, as its tensile strength is higher.
Stainless steels and alloys are currently the most common forms of this material used in aerospace applications. CRES Series Steel Series 300 is the standard steel used for screws and bolts; this series is corrosion resistant but sensitive to high temperatures. Additionally, series 400 products are common in applications that involve high heat environments.
Alloys used to construct fasteners are selected primarily based on proof loads and proof strength. This material is used in aerospace applications because of its strength, versatility, and resistance to corrosion. A286, Inconel 718, H-11, Waspaloy, Hastelloy, Monel, k-Monel, Haynes, MP35N, and MP 159 are all commonly integrated superalloys in the aerospace industry.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is the governing specifications and standards provider for automotive fasteners; the hardware is ranked on their graded system. persistently used fasteners in the automotive industry are bolts, nuts, and studs. Automotive hardware varies primarily by material, minimum yield strength, and minimum tensile strength.
SAE & Metric Standards
Automotive fasteners classified by SAE and Metric standards are categorized by proof loads, yield strength, and tensile strength. Vehicles and builds often integrate Grade 5 (metric 8.8) fasteners and Grade 8(metric 10.9) fasteners. Fasteners of SAE 2, 5, and 8; and 5.8, 8.8, 10.9, and 12.9 metric grades are used in the automotive industry.
Automotive Bolts, Nuts, and Studs
Common bolts used in the automotive industry are wheel bolts, U-bolts, and hub bolts. Compared to fasteners, bolts have a longer grip length, with a shorter threaded portion for attachment of a nut. Bolts are used in applications with high loads where strong, rigid attachment is needed. This type of hardware is divided into two main categorizations: American National Unified, or Metric. Further specifications vary based on threads per inch, nominal diameter, length, thread series, class fit, material grade, and head type; in the case of metric bolts, the criteria vary based on pitch, nominal diameter, material class, and head type.
Automotive nuts are generally square or hex, with a threaded hole in their center. Nuts are used to secure and fasten bolts when attached to another material. The grade of a bolt must match or be greater than the grade of the nut used with it.
Studs are threaded on both ends and have an unthreaded mid-section. Automotive studs are typically used in the build of an automotive engine: they are utilized to secure a gasket head and cylinders. They are secured to materials using nut screws. Automotive studs are constructed of various materials including copper, brass, nylon, bronze, and aluminum.
Marine applications require fasteners that provide high anti-corrosion properties and anti-galvanize properties. Galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and moisture degradation are all common issues encountered by hardware in a marine environment. Marine fasteners are therefore categorized primarily by their materials.
Stainless steel and silicon bronze are the most prevalently used materials in marine applications. CRES Series Steel 18-8, 304, and 316 are the most commonly used variety of stainless steel in the marine industry; Series 316 is prevalently used and offers the highest corrosion resistance.
Silicon bronze is made primarily of silicon, copper, and zinc alloy. Silicon bronze is highly resistant to corrosion from liquids and chemicals. This material is less likely to galvanize other metals, making it a valuable material in applications below the waterline.
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